asterisk AGI 如何工作

[i=s] 本帖最后由 8080 于 2010-9-9 13:47 编辑 [/i]

Asterisk AGI enables an IVR developer to develop IVR structures that are sometimes, bordering on the absurd, as applications tend to become more and more complex by using AGI. However, there are some scenarios where common dialplan practices are no longer applicable, and the use of an external logic is a must. Enter AGI!
How does AGI work

Let’s examine the following diagram:
As the previous diagram illustrates, an AGI script communicates with Asterisk via two standard data streams–STDIN (Standard Input) and STDOUT (Standard Output). From the AGI script point-of-view, any input coming in from Asterisk would be considered STDIN, while output to Asterisk would be considered as STDOUT.

The idea of using STDIN/STDOUT data streams with applications isn’t a new one, even if you’re a junior level programmer. Think of it as regarding any input from Asterisk with a read directive and outputting to Asterisk with a print or echo directive. When thinking about it in such a simplistic manner, it is clear that AGI scripts can be written in any scripting or programming language, ranging from BASH scripting, through PERL/PHP scripting, to even writing C/C++ programs to perform the same task.

Let’s now examine how an AGI script is invoked from within the Asterisk dialplan:

exten => _X.,1,AGI(some_script_name.agi,param1,param2,param3)

As you can see, the invocation is similar to the invocation of any other Asterisk dialplan application. However, there is one major difference between a regular dialplan application and an AGI script–the resources an AGI script consumes. While an internal application consumes a well-known set of resources from Asterisk, an AGI script simply hands over the control to an external process. Thus, the resources required to execute the external AGI script are now unknown, while at the same time, Asterisk consumes the resources for managing the execution of the AGI script.Ok, so BASH isn’t much of a resource hog, but what about Java? This means that the choice of programming language for your AGI scripts is important. Choosing the wrong programming language can often lead to slow systems and in most cases, non-operational systems.

While one may argue that the underlying programming language has a direct impact on the performance of your AGI application, it is imperative to learn the impact of each. To be more exact, it’s not the language itself, but more the technology of the programming language runtime that is important. The following table tries to distinguish between three programming languages’ families and their applicability to AGI development.
Language Family Member Languages Details
Binary Compiled C, C++, Pascal The executable code generated can be highly optimized; thus, its general system footprint is fairly light; although these are the perfect choice for AGI development, the development process is long and tedious
Virtual Machine Java, C#, Mono Virtual machine executables incur a hefty toll, the virtual machine itself usually consuming much memory; while languages like JAVA enable rapid development, their main usage should be limited to FastAGI
XE “Interpreted Language” PERL, PHP, Python, Ruby Interpreted languages have a slightly higher toll than binary compiled executables; however, their general footprint is much smaller than that of the Virtual Machine based languages; Interpreted languages, such as PHP, make up for about 80% of the AGI development in world, and easily fit both AGI and FastAGI development
EAGI, DeadAGI, and FastAGI

AGI has three cousins–EAGI, DeadAGI, and FastAGI. We shall now explain the use of each of these variants, and their proper usage.
EAGI–Enhanced Asterisk Gateway Interface

EAGI is a slightly more advanced version of AGI, allowing the AGI script to interact with the inbound audio stream via file descriptor 3. Essentially, EAGI can be used to create applications that can tap into an inbound audio stream, analyze it, and perform tasks in accordance with that stream of data.
DeadAGI–execution on hangup

Essentially speaking, AGI requires that an active channel be available for the AGI script to run. The main idea behind this is that an AGI script is supposed to interact with the user, or make the dialplan access various aspects outside the Asterisk environment.

A question that can be asked is: “In many scenarios we would like to execute commands upon the finalization of the call, or to be more exact, upon hangup or error. How can we run an AGI script upon hangup or error?” Well, the answer is: “By means of the utilization of the DeadAGI.”

DeadAGI enables the execution of an AGI script on a hung-up channel, or a channel that has not been fully established yet (in general, a non-answering channel).

While the above behaviour is true for versions 1.0.X and 1.2.X of Asterisk, version 1.4.X generates a warning upon the execution of a DeadAGI on a channel that has just been established, even if not answered. Asterisk 1.6.X is supposed to include a facility that will enable it to decide what type of AGI operation to utilize, making the DeadAGI application obsolete.

Let’s now examine how a DeadAGI script is invoked from within the Asterisk dialplan:

exten => h,1,DeadAGI(some_script_name.agi,param1,param2,param3)

The invocation is similar to that of a regular AGI script. However, DeadAGI scripts are supposed to be executed by the h extension only.
FastAGI–AGI execution via a TCP socket

Technically speaking, FastAGI is different in the following context: when Asterisk executes an AGI script via FastAGI, the resources required for the AGI script to run are consumed by a completely different process, and not Asterisk. In addition, the communications that were previously based on internal STDIN/STDOUT communications are now based on a TCP socket. This means that your AGI script, now actually an AGI server, can be operated and maintained on a completely different server, enabling you to separate the application logic from the Asterisk dialplan logic.

Bear in mind the following that if your FastAGI server has executed an internal Asterisk application (for example, playback), you will consume the resources of both the Asterisk application and the AGI execution client.

Let’s now examine how a FastAGI script is invoked from within the Asterisk dialplan:

exten => _X.,1,AGI(agi://IP_NUMBER:PORT/some_script_name.agi)

Please note that passing arguments to the FastAGI servers is possible. However, it varies depending on the Asterisk version you are using.
Asterisk 1.2.X and 1.4.X

Passing arguments to a FastAGI server from either Asterisk 1.2.X or Asterisk 1.4.X is performed by using an HTTP GET type request:

exten => _X.,1,AGI(agi://${EXTEN})

In this case, the FastAGI server is responsible for handling the various arguments, parsing them, and handling each of them correctly.
Asterisk 1.6

Passing arguments to a FastAGI server from Asterisk 1.6.X is simpler and highly resembles the methodology used for a regular AGI script:

exten => _X.,1,AGI(agi://|${EXTEN}|{VAR2})

In this scenario, the arguments are available via the AGI variables named agi_arg_1 and agi_arg_2 respectively. The previous ones are also supported. However, if you are using Asterisk 1.6, try to use the new methodology, in order to be forward compatible.
FastAGI frameworks

As indicated above, FastAGI is a TCP socket based system, making it a client/server environment. As with any client/server environment that is based upon an open source technology, a multitude of frameworks exist in order to make our life easier in the development of FastAGI servers. The following is a short list of frameworks, available for various platforms that do just that:
Language Framework URL
.NET NAsterisk [url=][/url]
ActiveX AstOCX [url=][/url]
Erlang ErlAst [url=][/url]
Python FATS StarPy [url=][/url]
Java Asterisk-Java [url=][/url]
Ruby Adhearsion [url=][/url]

Others exist too; however, these are the most common ones for Asterisk FastAGI development.
AGI scripting frameworks

As with any other open source project, the number of frameworks built for the development of AGI scripts is amazing. Considering the fact that the AGI language consists of less than thirty different methods, the existence of over thirty different scripting frameworks is amazing.

The following list contains some of the more popular frameworks for AGI scripting:
Language Framework URL
PERL Asterisk PERL Library [url=][/url]
PHP PHPAGI [url=][/url]
Python py-Asterisk [url=][/url]
C libagiNow [url=][/url]
.NET MONO-TONE [url=][/url]
The AGI application

The following is the documentation of the AGI dialplan command, as it appears in the Asterisk documentation:

-= Info about application ‘AGI’ =-

Executes an AGI compliant application

[E|Dead]AGI(command|args): Executes an Asterisk Gateway Interface
compliant program on a channel. AGI allows Asterisk to launch external
programs written in any language to control a telephony channel, play
audio, read DTMF digits, etc. by communicating with the AGI protocol on stdin and stdout.

This channel will stop dialplan execution on hangup inside of this
application, except when using DeadAGI. Otherwise, dialplan execution
will continue normally.

A locally executed AGI script will receive SIGHUP on hangup from
the channel except when using DeadAGI. This can be disabled by setting
the AGISIGHUP channel variable to “no” before executing the AGI

Using ‘EAGI’ provides enhanced AGI, with incoming audio available
out of band on file descriptor 3

Use the CLI command ‘agi show’ to list available agi commands
This application sets the following channel variable upon
AGISTATUS The status of the attempt to the run the AGI
script text string, one of SUCCESS | FAILURE | HANGUP

The AGI execution flow

Once an AGI script has been invoked, a preset information flow is performed between the AGI script and Asterisk. It is imperative to understand this information flow, as the structure of your AGI script depends on this flow.
The following diagram describes the steps that occur when an AGI script is executed from within the Asterisk dialplan:

If you are familiar with UML, the immediately preceding diagram may seem a little weird, as it doesn’t follow the exact rules of the UML diagram. The diagram is meant for non-UML readers to be able to relate to the information.

As you can see, most of the interaction between Asterisk and our AGI script happens between the third and the fifth stages,. Let’s examine what happens in these stages, using the following dialplan example:

exten => _X.,1,Answer
exten => _X.,n,Set(DID=${EXTEN})
exten => _X.,n,Set(CLID=${CALLERID(num)})
exten => _X.,n,AGI(SomeScript.php)

As our AGI script is being executed from the Asterisk dialplan, Asterisk will pass a preset number of variables, along with general AGI execution information to our AGI script, which requires initial processing, prior to the actual AGI script execution.
AGI Variable Description
agi_request Name of the agi script that is being called.
agi_channel hannel that the call is coming from.
agi_language Language that is configured on the server.
agi_type Call type, mainly the channel type.
agi_uniqueid A unique identifier for this session.
agi_callerid Caller ID number.
agi_calleridname Caller ID name, where available, not supported on all channel types.
agi_callingpres PRI Call ID presentation variable.
agi_callingani2 Caller ANI2 (PRI channels), where applicable.
agi_callington Caller type of number (PRI channels).
agi_callingtns Transit Network Selector (PRI channels).
agi_dnid Dialed number identifier.
agi_rdnis Redirected Dial Number ID Service (RDNIS).
agi_context Current context from which the AGI script was executed.
agi_extension Extension that was called.
agi_priority Current priority in the dialplan, that is, priority of the AGI script execution.
agi_enhanced 0.0
agi_accountcode Account code.

As your script is being executed, all the information presented in the table, will be dumped into your script execution input, before you receive any other input from Asterisk.

Most AGI scripts may regard the above as “noise”, as most AGI scripts will obtain the information contained within these variables from an external source. When using a framework, you would notice that most frameworks simply disregard this information, and continue execution after simply skipping this portion of the execution.

Once our AGI script has finalized the information reading from Asterisk, our actual AGI script operations flow will begin, that is, our AGI script logic will begin its implementation. Once an AGI script has terminated its execution, it will return the control back to Asterisk for the continued execution of the Asterisk dialplan. The AGI methods API

The following is a complete list of AGI methods, available to the developer via the AGI interface. It is alweays best to keep yourself updated–either via the Asterisk documentation of the AGI command, or via the agi show command, available from your Asterisk CLI.

*CLI> agi show
answer Answer channel
channel status Returns status of the connected channel
database del Removes database key/value
database deltree Removes database keytree/value
database get Gets database value
database put Adds/updates database value
exec Executes a given Application
get data Prompts for DTMF on a channel
get full variable Evaluates a channel expression
get option Stream file, prompt for DTMF, with timeout
get variable Gets a channel variable
hangup Hangup the current channel
noop Does nothing
receive char Receives one character from channels
supporting it
receive text Receives text from channels supporting it
record file Records to a given file
say alpha Says a given character string
say digits Says a given digit string
say number Says a given number
say phonetic Says a given character string with phonetics
say date Says a given date
say time Says a given time
say datetime Says a given time as specfied by the format
send image Sends images to channels supporting it
send text Sends text to channels supporting it
set autohangup Autohangup channel in some time
set callerid Sets callerid for the current channel
set context Sets channel context
set extension Changes channel extension
set music Enable/Disable Music on hold generator
set priority Set channel dialplan priority
set variable Sets a channel variable
stream file Sends audio file on channel
control stream file Sends audio file on channel and allows the
listner to control the stream
tdd mode Toggles TDD mode (for the deaf)
verbose Logs a message to the asterisk verbose log
wait for digit Waits for a digit to be pressed

The ten rules of AGI development

Developers, who are given the task of developing an AGI script for the first time, tend to superimpose their traditional development techniques over the development of AGI scripts. By far, this is the most dangerous thing that can be done, as AGI scripting and traditional programming vary immensely. The following section will list the do’s and don’ts that need to be followed, so that your AGI scripts work and function properly.
Rule #1: An AGI script should terminate as fast as possible

First-time AGI developers tend to develop their entire application within an AGI script. As you develop your entire application within an AGI script, you may gain the power of the scripting language, but will incur a cost of performance. Always make sure that the AGI scripts that you develop terminate their execution as fast as possible, returning to the dialplan as fast as possible. This concept dictates that each AGI script being run should behave quickly as an atomic unit–hence the name “Atomic AGI”.
Rule #2: Blocking applications have no place in AGI

As a direct continuation to rule #1, you should never execute a blocking application from within an AGI script. Initiating a blocking application from within an AGI script will make your Asterisk environment explode slowly. Why is that? Because for every blocking application that you run from within the AGI script, you will have both your AGI script and the blocking application running for the duration of the block. Imagine that you were to initiate the Dial application from within an AGI script, and the call created would last over thirty minutes. For those thirty minutes, your AGI script is still active. This isn’t much of a problem when dealing with small-scale systems. But when trying to run 50 concurrent scripts, be prepared for failure.

Blocking applications include the following: Dial, MeetMe, MusicOnHold, Playback (when dealing with long playbacks), Monitor, ChanSpy, and other applications that have an unknown execution duration.
Rule #3: Asterisk channels are stateful–use them

An Asterisk channel, once operational, is like a big bucket of information. Channel variables can be used to carry information from your AGI script to the dialplan and back. The variables remain as part of the channel untill the channel is terminated, when memory is then freed.

Using this “bucket” enables you to carry variables and information obtained via an AGI script and then pass these to an application in the dialplan. For example, imagine that you are developing a pre-paid platform. A decision on the call timeout is taken via an AGI script. However, the actual dialling of the call is performed from the dialplan itself.
Rule #4: AGI scripts should manipulate data–no more

Most developers tend to think of AGI scripting as a functional unit, meaning that they enclose multiple functionalities into the AGI script. While AGI is fully capable of performing telephony functionality, it is best to leave this functionality to the dialplan.

Utilize your AGI script to set and reset channel variables and communicate with out-of-band information systems. The concept of allowing out-of-band information flow into Asterisk’s operational flow of channel, enables new functionality and possibilities. Not all logic should be handled by your AGI script. Sometimes, it is better to use the AGI script as a data conduit, while letting an external information system handle the data manipulation.
Rule #5: VM based languages are bad for AGI scripting

Virtual machine based programming languages are bad for AGI scripting. Putting aside the rules #1 and #2, imagine that your application is built using an AGI script using the Java programming language. If you are familiar with Java, you most probably know that for each program that you execute using Java, a full Java virtual machine is invoked.

While this practice may seem fairly normal for information systems, Asterisk and IVR development vary. Imagine that our system is required to handle a maximum number of 120 concurrent channels, which means that the maximum number of concurrent AGI scripts will be 120. According to this concept, our Java environment will be fully invoked for each of these 120 instances. In other words, too many resources are being used just for the VM.

If you really feel that you want to develop AGI scripts using Java, FastAGI is the way to go for you.
Rule #6: Binary-compiled AGI is not always the answer

While evaluating rules #1, #2 and #5, we can’t but reach an almost immediate conclusion that we need to have our AGI script binary compiled. While in terms of efficiency and performance, a binary compiled AGI may provide better performance, the time required to develop it may be longer. In some cases, scripting languages such as PHP, PERL, and Python may provide near-similar performance at a lesser cost.

Also, when using binary compiled AGI scripts, you are always in charge of the memory allocation and cleanup. Even the most experienced developer can commit errors while dealing with memory allocation, so binary compiled AGI need not be the solution always.

If your system truly requires the performance edge of a binary compiled AGI, we encourage you to develop a prototype using a scripting language. Once you have your prototype working, start developing your binary version.
Rule #7: Balance your scripts with dialplan logic

While evaluating rules #1, #2 and #4, we must keep in mind that developing IVR systems with Asterisk resembles a high-wire balancing act. The fine art of balancing your dialplan with AGI scripts proves to be a powerful tool, especially when developing complex IVR systems.

Many developers tend to externalize functionality from the dialplan into AGI, while the same functionality can be achieved by writing dialplan macros or dialplan contexts. Using Asterisk’s branching commands (goto, gotoif, exec,, execif, gosub and gosubif) can easily remove redundant AGI code, passing the control from the AGI back to the dialplan.
Rule #8: Balance your scripts with web services

When evaluating rule #4, one may ask: “What is an out-of-band information system?” We shall explain now. Most Asterisk developers tend to develop their systems with the data information system–either embedded into their Asterisk server or communicating with an information system installed on the same server with the Asterisk server.

While, for small systems, this proves to be both efficient and economic, when developing a high-end system that requires scalability and redundancy, this methodology proves to be counter-productive. One of the methodologies (although many others exist) for interconnecting Asterisk with an out-of-band information system is web services. Communication to the web service is performed via AGI; the web-service protocol–you can use your favourite one.

The choice of protocol isn’t that important, as almost any protocol type used for web services would do. Be it SOAP, WSDL, XML-RPC, WDDX or any other, take your pick, and the performance and scalability should be similar in any of these.
Rule #9: Syslog is your friend–use it

Every developer knows that using log files for debugging and monitoring purposes is a must. Be it for using a binary compiled AGI or a scripting language based AGI, make sure to utilize the logging facility. Trying to debug an AGI application from within the Asterisk console, though possible, can prove to be a tedious task. Sending log entries to a well-formatted log can save you much time and headache.

Scripting languages, such as PHP and PERL, do not offer a direct debugging facility, making the debugging of such AGI scripts even harder. Using log files as a debugging point for your AGI script will prove very useful when developing highly complex systems.

In order to make your syslog more readable, assign a self-created unique ID to each of your calls. When writing to your log, make sure that the unique ID appears in each log entry, so that you can trace a specific session flow through Asterisk. Remember, an Asterisk channel is stateful. The unique ID will remain as part of the channel untill it is removed from the system.
Rule #10: The Internet is for Asterisk

As bad as the following may sound, if you have a problem or an idea, remember that someone else had almost definitely come across it before you did. I don’t want to discourage you, but actually, I want you to make use of the multitude of Asterisk resources available on the Internet.

The amount of information relating to Asterisk and platform development that has been accumulated by search engines is staggering. Over the course of the past two years, the amount of information available has multiplied two times (at least), making it the best source to find answers to your questions.

Asterisk user forums exist today in almost every country around the world; in some countries, there is more than one forum. These forums provide fast answers and professional guidance, allowing you to concentrate on your development, instead of concentrating on obtaining information.

We have now completed our introduction to Asterisk’s AGI technology. The article starts with introduction to the working of AGI. It then covers different types of AGI, different frameworks, and finally it touches upon the do’s and don’ts that need to be followed for the AGI script to work and function properly.
About the Author

Nir Simionovich has been involved with the open-source community in Israel since 1997. His involvement with the open-source community started back in 1997, when he was a student in the Technion, Israel’s Technology Institute in Haifa. Nir quickly became involved in organizing open-source events and promoting usage of Linux and open-source technologies in Israel.


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